Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), Washington, DC
$37,554,836 to winners, $33,486,675 to losers
The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, or PhRMA, represents dozens of pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. It was established in 1958 and is led by President and CEO John J. Castellani. Billy Tauzin, who joined PhRMA after pushing 2003's Medicare bill through Congress as a Republican representative from Louisiana, was its CEO until resigning in 2010. In California, PhRMA contributed more than $70 million in 2005 to defeat Proposition 79 and pass Proposition 78. Both initiatives aimed to establish a prescription drug discount program to help low-income families, but Prop. 79 offered more benefits for patients and increased punishments for "profiteering" drug companies. Both initiatives failed.
Total contributions: $71,608,063
List of contributions
Source: Contribution data from National Institute on Money in State Politics
Credits: Interactive by Michael Corey, Coulter Jones and Chase Davis. Reporting by Coulter Jones. Badge design by Thomas Guffey. Additional reporting by Stanford University students enrolled in a Communications Department investigative reporting class under the direction of California Watch Editorial Director Mark Katches. The project began in January 2011. Students participating were: Devin Banerjee, Daniel Bohm, Kathleen Chaykowski, Tom Corrigan, Cassandra Feliciano, Jamie Hansen, Amy Harris, Josh Hicks, Ellen Huet, Julia James, Paul Jones, Ryan Mac, Valentina Nesci, Dean Schaffer, Elizabeth Titus and Kareem Yasin. Bohm, Hansen, Huet, Harris and Titus continued to work on the project as California Watch interns under the direction of Associate Editor Denise Zapata.